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Wayne Levy


Professor of Medicine
Attending Physician, University of Washington Medical Center

University of Washington Medical Center
1959 N.E. Pacific Street
Box 356422
Seattle, WA 98195-6422


  • Fellowship, Cardiology , University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, 1991
  • Residency, Internal Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, 1988
  • BS, Columbia Union College, Takoma Park, MD, 1981
  • MD, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 1985


  • Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology, 2012
  • American Board of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Diseases, 1991, 2001
  • American Board of Internal Medicine, 1988



  • Advanced Heart Failure
  • Cardiac Transplantation




  • Prognostic risk modeling for heart failure patients including all cause mortality and modes of death
  • Developer of the Seattle Heart Failure Model (, Seattle Post Infarction Model, and the Seattle Proportional Risk Model
  • Identification of patients who may derive greater benefit from an ICD using the Seattle Heart Failure Model and the Seattle Proportional Risk Models
  • Identification of patients and timing for LVAD implantation

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 Selected Publications

Levy WC, Mozaffarian D, Linker DT, Sutradhar SC, Anker SD, Cropp AB, Anand I, Maggioni A, Burton P, Sullivan MD, Pitt B, Poole-Wilson PA, Mann D, Packer M. The Seattle Heart Failure Model: Prediction of survival in heart failure. Circulation 2006;113:1424-1433. PMID: 16534009
Mozaffarian DM, Anker SD, Anand I, Linker DT, Maggioni AP, Sullivan MD, Cleland JGF, Carson PE, Pitt B, Poole-Wilson PA, Mann DL, Levy WC. Prediction of Mode of Death in Heart Failure: The Seattle Heart Failure Model. Circulation 2007;116:392-398. PMID: 17620506
Allen LA, Yager JE, Funk MJ, Levy WC, Tulsky JA, Bowers MT, Dodson GC, O’Connor CM, Fleker GM. Discordance between patient-predicted and model-predicted life expectancy among ambulatory patients with heart failure. JAMA. 2008;299:2533-42. PMID: 18523222
Levy WC, Mozaffarian DM, Linker DT, Farrar D, Miller LW. Can the Seattle Heart Failure Model be used to Risk Stratify Heart Failure Patients for Potential Left Ventricular Assist Device Therapy? J Heart Lung Transplan 2009:28(3);231-236. PMID: 19285613
Levy WC, Lee KL, Hellkamp AS, Poole JE, Mozaffarian D, Linker DT, Maggioni AP, Anand I, Poole-Wilson PA, Fishbein DF, Johnson G, Anderson J, Mark DB, Bardy GH. Maximizing Survival Benefit With Primary Prevention implantable cardiovertor-defibrillator Therapy in a Heart Failure Population. Circulation 2009;120:835-842. PMID: 19704100
Ketchum ES, Moorman AJ, Fishbein DP, Mokadam NA, Verrier ED, Aldea GS, Andrus S, Kenyon KW, Levy WC. Predictive value of the Seattle Heart Failure Model in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device placement. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2010 Sep;29(9):1021-1025. Epub 2010 Jun 16. PMID: 20558086
Smith T, Levy WC, Schaer BA, Balk AH, Sticherling C, Jordaens L, Theuns DA.Performance of the Seattle Heart Failure Model in Implantable Defibrillator Patients Treated With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2012 ;110:398-402 PMID: 22516524.
Ketchum ES, Jacobson AF, Caldwell JH, Senior R, Cerqueira MD, Thomas GS, Agostini D, Narula J, Levy WC. Selective improvement in Seattle Heart Failure Model Risk Stratification using iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine imaging. J Nucl Med 2012;19:1007-16. PMID: 22949270
Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Masoudi FA, Butler J, Casey Jr DE, Drazner MH, Fonarow GC, Ceraci SA, Horwich T, Januzzi JL, Johnson MF, Kasper EK, Levy WC, Riegel B, Sam F, Stevenson LW, Wilson Tang WH, Tsai EJ, Wilkoff BL. 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Developed in Collaboration With the American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, Heart Rhythm Society and International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013:1097(13)02114-1. PMID 24747642
Finegold JA, Raphael C, Levy WC, Winnett Z, Francis DP. Quantification of survival gain from cardiac resynchronization therapy: non-linear growth with time, and greater gain in low-risk patients, make raw trial data an underestimate of real-world behavior. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Aug 23. S0753-1097(13)04008-4. PMID: 23988700
Li Y, Levy WC, Neilson MP, Ellis SJ, Whellan DJ, Schulman KA, O'Connor CM, Reed SD. Seattle Heart Failure Model Scores Significantly Predict Medical Resource Use and Costs: Findings from HF-ACTION. J Card Fail. 2014;20:541-7 PMID: 24887579
Shadman R, Poole JE, Dardas TF, Mozaffarian D, Cleland JG, Swedberg K, Maggioni AP, Anand IS, Carson PE, Miller AB, Levy WC. A Novel Method to Predict the Proportional Risk From Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure: Derivation of the Seattle Proportional Risk Model (Sprm). Heart Rhythm. 2015 Jun 30. pii: S1547-5271(15)00813-9. PMID: 26142301
Dardas T, Li Y, Reed SD, O'Connor CM, Whellan DJ, Ellis SJ, Schulman KA, Kraus WE, Forman DE, Levy WC. Incremental and independent value of cardiopulmonary exercise test measures and the Seattle Heart Failure Model for prediction of risk in patients with heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015 Aug;34(8):1017-1023. PMID: 25940075
Raphael CE, Finegold JA, Barron AJ, Whinnett ZI, Mayet J, Linde C, Cleland JG, Levy WC, Francis DP. The effect of duration of follow-up and presence of competing risk on lifespan-gain from implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: who benefits the most? Eur Heart J. 2015 Jul 7;36(26):1676-88 PMID: 25908776
Reed SD, Neilson MP, Gardner M, Li Y, Briggs AH, Polsky DE, Graham FL, Bowers MT, Paul SC, Granger BB, Schulman KA, Whellan DJ, Riegel B, Levy WC. Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model: A Web-based program designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs in heart failure. Am Heart J. 2015 Nov;170(5):951-60. PMID: 26542504